Before knowing more about EXOTICS Leather, maybe we should learn basic knowledge about Leather it self.
LEATHER General knowledge
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by the tanning of animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide.
It can be produced through manufacturing processes ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.
(*information source @WikiPedia)
Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather:
- Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins and other ingredients found in different vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills, wood, leaves, fruits and roots and other similar sources. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. It is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, so if left to soak and then dry it will shrink and become less supple, and harder. In hot water, it will shrink drastically and partly gelatinize, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled waxor similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding. Vegetable tanned leathers present unique, recognizable and natural characteristics while respecting the environment, thanks to the heritage of expert craftsman and the use of old traditional recipes, new technologies and natural tannins.
- Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and other salts of chromium. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More esoteric colors are possible using chrome tanning.
- Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of “chrome-free” leather, often seen in automobiles and shoes for infants.
- Formaldehyde tanning (being phased out due to its danger to workers and the sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde) is another method of aldehyde tanning. Brain-tanned leathers fall into this category and are exceptionally water absorbent.
- Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process which uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains. They are known for their exceptional softness and their ability to be washed.
- Chamois leather also falls into the category of aldehyde tanning and, like brain tanning, produces a highly water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made by using oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to make the fabric the color it is.
- Rose tanned leather is a variation of vegetable oil tanning and brain tanning, where pure rose otto replaces the vegetable oil and emulsified oils. It has been called the most valuable leather on earth, but this is mostly due to the high cost of rose otto and its labor-intensive tanning process.
- Synthetic-tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers such as the Novolac or Neradol types (syntans, contraction for synthetic tannins). This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category as well, and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require. Urea-formaldehyde resins were also used in this tanning method until dissatisfaction about the formation of free formaldehyde was realized.
- Alum-tawed leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum-tawed leather is technically not tanned, as tannic acid is not used, and the resulting material will revert to rawhide if soaked in water long enough to remove the alum salts. Very light shades of leather are possible using this process, but the resulting material is not as supple as vegetable-tanned leather.
- Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tawing, rawhide is not technically “leather”, but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather; it’s primarily found in uses such as drum heads and parchment where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching and for making many varieties of dog chews.
Leather—usually vegetable-tanned—can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water.
Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Leather with the hair still attached is called hair-on.
In general, leather is sold in four forms :
- Full-grain leather refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to top-grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of the hide. The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has breathability, resulting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Rather than wearing out, it will develop apatina over time. High quality leather furniture and footwear are often made from full-grain leather. Full-grain leathers are typically available in two finish types: aniline and semi-aniline.
- Top-grain leather (the most common type used in high-end leather products) is the second-highest quality. It has had the “split” layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable than full-grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added to the surface which results in a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and it will not develop a natural patina. It is typically less expensive and has greater resistance to stains than full-grain leather, so long as the finish remains unbroken.
- Corrected-grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off, and an artificial grain impressed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.
- Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top-grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather). Splits are also used to create suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is “fuzzy” on both sides. Manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede from full-grain. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not considered to be a true form of suede.
- Bonded Leather is the most economical type that uses leftovers of organic leather that are bonded together with polyurethane binders on top of a fiber sheet. The varying degree of organic leather in the mix (between 60% to 100%) affect the smell and the texture of such product. Due to its reduced cost it is becoming a popular choice for furniture upholstery, especially for commercial use, where durability is needed.
Less-common leathers include:
- Buckskin or brained leather is a tanning process that uses animal brains or other fatty materials to alter the leather. The resulting supple, suede-like hide is usually smoked heavily to prevent it from returning to a rawhide state, if gotten wet. It will be easier to soften, and will help keep leather eating bugs away.
- Patent leather is leather that has been given a high-gloss finish. The original process was developed in Newark, New Jersey, by inventor Seth Boyden in 1818. Patent leather usually has aplastic coating.
- Fish Leather : leather popular for its motifs and its pigmentation. Mainly used for making shoes and bags, the fish skin is tanned like other animal skins. The species used include salmon, perch, sturgeon, etc.
- Salmon : farmed in Iceland and Norway, salmon skin has fine scales. Its strength and elegant look make it the most popular fish leather.
- Perch : coming from Nile, its skin is recognizable with its large, round and soft scales.
- Wolffish : its skin is smooth because without scales. We recognize it thanks to its dark spots, and the ‘stripes’ which are due to the friction of marine rocks.
- Cod : its skin has finer scales than salmon, but its texture is more varied, sometimes smooth and sometimes rough.
- Sturgeon : fish well known for its eggs (caviar), which make it rare. Its leather is thus quite expensive.
- Eel : fish without scales, its skin has a shiny appearance.
- Tilapia : its leather is less resistant than salmon and perch but is still exotic. It comes mainly from Africa (Nile).
- Shagreen is also known as stingray skin/leather. Applications used in furniture production date as far back as the art deco period. The word “shagreen” originates from France. It’s known as the most difficult leather to work due to dished scales of the animal, and it is one of the most expensive leathers.
- Shark : its skin is covered with small, close-set tubercles, making it very tough. The handbags made of shark skin used to be in vogue but this keen interest has since fallen as the costs of production and of the leather itself are very high. Moreover, this skin is more difficult to work.
- Vachetta leather is used in the trimmings of luggage and handbags. The leather is left untreated and is therefore susceptible to water and stains. Sunlight will cause the natural leather to darken in shade, called a patina.
- Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft and is valued for use in making gloves.
- Deerskin is a tough leather, possibly due to the animal’s adaptations to its thorny and thicket-filled habitats. Deerskin has been used by many societies, including indigenous Americans. Most modern deerskin is no longer procured from the wild, with deer farms breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Large quantities are still tanned from wild deer hides in historic tanning towns such as Gloversville and Johnstown in upstate New York. Deerskin is used in jackets and overcoats, martial arts equipment such as kendo and bogu, as well as personal accessories such as handbags and wallets.
- Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface.
- Russia leather is a particular form of bark-tanned cow leather. It is distinguished by an oiling step, after tanning, where birch oil is worked into the leather to make it particularly hard-wearing, flexible and resistant to water.
There are two other types of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage:
- Belting leather is a full-grain leather that was originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is generally a heavy-weight of full-grain, vegetable-tanned leather.
- Napa leather is chrome-tanned and is soft and supple. It is commonly found in wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods.
The following are not “true” organic leathers, but are materials that contain leather fiber. Depending on jurisdiction, they may still be labeled as “Genuine Leather”, even though the consumer generally can only see the outer layer of the material and can’t actually see any of the leather content:
- “Reconstituted leather” or “Corrected grain”, is composed of up to 90% leather fibers (often leftovers from leather tanneries or leather workshops) bonded together with a polyurethane or latex binders to create a look and feel similar to that of organic leather at reduced cost.
- Bycast leather is a split leather with a layer of polyurethane applied to the surface and then embossed. Bycast was originally made for the shoe industry and recently was adopted by the furniture industry. The original formula created by Bayer was strong but expensive. The result is a material that is slightly stiffer but cheaper than top-grain leather but has a much more consistent texture. Because its surface is completely covered in plastic, is easier to clean and maintain.
# From other animals
Today most leather is made of cattle skin but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deerskin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparel. Deer and elkskin are widely used in work gloves and indoor shoes. Pigskin is used in apparel and on seats of saddles. Buffalo, goats, alligators, dogs, snakes, ostriches, kangaroos, oxen, and yaks may also be used for leather.
Kangaroo skin is used to make items which need to be strong but flexible—it is the material most commonly used in bullwhips. Kangaroo leather is favored by some motorcyclists for use in motorcycle leathers specifically because of its light weight and abrasion resistance. Kangaroo leather is also used for falconry jesses, soccer footwear, and boxing speed bags. At different times in history, leather made from more exotic skins has been considered desirable. For this reason certain species of snakes and crocodiles have been hunted. (CITES)
Although originally raised for their feathers in the 19th century, ostriches are now more popular for both meat and leather. There are different processes to produce different finishes for many applications, i.e., upholstery, footwear, automotive products, accessories, and clothing.
Ostrich leather is currently used by many major fashion houses such as Hermès, Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton. Ostrich leather has a characteristic “goose bump” look because of the large follicles from which the feathers grew. In Thailand sting ray leather is used in wallets and belts. Sting ray leather is tough and durable.
The leather is often dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps in the natural pattern of the back ridge of an animal. These bumps are then usually dyed white to highlight the decoration. Sting ray rawhide is also used as grips on Chinese swords, Scottish basket hilted swords and Japanese katanas.
# Production processes
The leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning, and crusting.
All true leathers will undergo these sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating, can be added into the leather process sequence, but not all leathers receive surface treatment.
Since many types of leather exist, it is difficult to create a list of operations that all leathers must undergo.
The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. Preparatory stages may include: preservation, soaking, liming, unhairing, fleshing,splitting, reliming, deliming, bating, degreasing, frizing, bleaching, pickling, and depickling.
Tanning is the process which matches the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard inflexible material that when re-wetted (or wetted back) putrefy, while tanned material dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back.
Many different tanning methods and materials can be used; the choice is ultimately dependent on the end application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material ischromium, which leaves the leather, once tanned, a pale blue color (due to the chromium); this product is commonly called “wet blue”. The hides once they have finished pickling will typically be between pH 2.8 and 3.2. At this point, the hides would be loaded in a drum and immersed in a float containing the tanning liquor. The hides are allowed to soak (while the drum slowly rotates about its axle) and the tanning liquor slowly penetrates through the full substance of the hide.
Regular checks will be made to see the penetration by cutting the cross-section of a hide and observing the degree of penetration. Once an even degree of penetration exists, the pH of the float is slowly raised in a process called basification. This basification process fixes the tanning material to the leather and the more tanning material fixed, the higher the hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The pH of the leather when chrome tanned would typically finish somewhere between 3.8 and 4.2.(CITES)
Crusting is the process by which the hide/skin is thinned, re-tanned, and lubricated. Often a coloring operation is included in the crusting subprocess. The chemicals added during crusting must be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting subprocess is the drying and softening operations.
Crusting may include the following operations: wetting back, sammying, splitting, shaving, rechroming, neutralization, re-tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, filling, stuffing, stripping, whitening, fixating, setting, drying, conditioning, milling, staking, and buffing.
For some leathers, a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing operations may include: oiling, brushing, padding, impregnation, buffing, spraying, roller coating, curtain coating, polishing, plating, embossing, ironing, ironing/combing (for hair-on), glazing, and tumbling.
# Preservation and conditioning
The natural fibers of leather will break down with the passage of time. Acidic leathers are particularly vulnerable to red rot, which causes powdering of the surface and a change in consistency. Damage from red rot is aggravated by high temperatures and relative humidities and is irreversible. Exposure to long periods of low relative humidities (below 40%) can cause leather to become desiccated, irreversibly changing the fibrous structure of the leather.
Chemical damage can also occur from exposure to environmental factors, including ultraviolet light, ozone, acid from sulfurous and nitrous pollutants in the air, or through a chemical action following any treatment with tallow or oil compounds. Both oxidation and chemical damage occur faster at higher temperatures.
Various treatments are available such as conditioners, but these are not recommended by conservators since they impregnate the structure of the leather artifact with active chemicals, are sticky, and attract stains. Saddle soap is used for cleaning, conditioning and softening leather. Leather shoes are widely conditioned with shoe polish.
# Book binding
Leather used in book-binding has many of the same preservation needs: protection from high temperatures, high relative humidity, low relative humidity, fluctuations in relative humidity, light exposure, dust buildup, pollution, mold, and bug infestation. For books with red rot, acid-free phase boxes and/or polyester dust jackets (Dupont Mylar Type D or ICI Mellinex 516) are recommended to protect the leather from further handling damage and as well as to prevent the residues from getting on hands, clothes, the text block, and nearby books. The debate on the use of dressings for preservation of book bindings has spanned several decades as research and experimental evidence have slowly accumulated.
The main argument is that, done incorrectly, there are multiple disadvantages and that, done correctly, there is little to no preservation advantage. Pamphlets and guidelines give numerous downsides to dressings use, including: the dressing becoming increasingly acidic and will discolor and stain the leather, oxidize (penetration and expansion of oils including displacement and weakening of fibers) and stiffen, leave a sticky surface, collect dust, wick into adjacent materials, form unstable surface spews, encourage biological deterioration and mold growth, block surface porosity, impede further treatment, wet and swell the leather, affect surface finishes, and desiccate or dry out the leather. Meanwhile, scientific experiments have shown no substantial benefits. The main authorities on the subject therefore discourage it, with a caveat for special cases done under the direction of a conservator.
EXOTICS Definition :
1. of foreign origin or character; not native; introduced from abroad, but not fully naturalized or acclimatized: exotic foods; exotic plants.
2. strikingly unusual or strange in effect or appearance: an exotic hairstyle.
3. of a uniquely new or experimental nature: exotic weapons.
4. of, pertaining to, or involving stripteasing: the exotic clubs where strippers are featured. noun
5. something that is exotic: The flower show included several tropical exotics with showy blooms.
6. an exotic dancer; stripper.
Related forms exotically, adverb exoticness, noun nonexotic, adjective nonexotically, adverb unexotic, adjective unexotically, adverbCan be confused erotic, erratic, exotic.
An exotic trip might be a journey to the Galapagos Islands, instead of to Orlando’s Sea World. Animals and people, or sensory things like food and smells, are often called exotic when they are from far-away lands.
In the 16th century, exotic came into use — from Latin and Greek words for “foreign,” which came, in turn, from exo-,meaning “outside.”
By the 17th century it was also being used to describe things that are striking or unusual. Even when the words strange and alien are sometimes used as synonyms.
Adj-Strikingly strange or unusual
- Synonyms :
- strange, unusual
being definitely out of the ordinary and unexpected; slightly odd or even a bit weird.
EXOTICS LEATHER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Exotic leather is distinctly different from leathers generally used in shoes, boots, bags, garments, and accessory items. Such leather is usually cowhide, calfskin, kidskin, sheepskin, and goatskins. All of the aforementioned are domestic animals. Conversely, “exotic” leathers, as they are known in the trade, are not made from domestic animal hides or skins. According to definition, an exotic leather often comes from another country; is not native to the place where found; foreign; outlandish; alien; strikingly unusual in color or design, rich; showy; and is often elaborate.
The following are skins often produced that are known as exotics in the trade: American Alligator (Alligator Mississipiensis) New Guinea Crocodile (Crocodylus Porosus and Crocodylus Novaguineae) South American Alligator (Caiman Crocodylus Fuscus) Argentine Lizard (Tupinambis Nigropunctatus) Python (Tython Reticulatus) Southern Anaconda, Anaconda Sucurry Sucurujuba (Eunectes Murinus and Eunectes Notaeus) Hornback-Caiman Lizard (Dracaena Guianensis) Common Iguana Lizard (Iguana Spp.) Javanese Wart Snake-Karung (Acrochordus Javanicus Indian Rat Snake-Whip Snake (Ptyas Mucosus and Ptyas Korros).
These are some informations about EXOTICS Leather that generally used in Fashion Industry :
* PYTHON *
Python Family (Snake)
The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python, are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world.
Scientific name: Pythonidae
Higher classification: Alethinophidia
Lower classifications: Liasis, Antaresia,Python, Morelia, Aspidites.
Python curtus is a species of Pythonid, a nonvenomous snake found in Southeast Asia. Three subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here, although some authors describe these as species.Adults grow to 1.5-2.5 m (5–8 feet) in length and are heavily built. The tail is extremely short relative to the overall length. The color pattern consists of a beige, tan or grayish-brown ground color overlaid with blotches that are brick to blood-red in color
Python, from the Greek word (πύθων/πύθωνας), is a genus of nonvenomous pythons found in Africa and Asia. Currently, 12 species are recognised. A member of this genus, P. reticulatus, is among the longest snake species and extant reptiles in the world. Found in Africa in the tropics south of theSahara, but not in southern Africa, the extreme southwestern tip, or in Madagascar.
In Asiait is found fromBangladesh, Nepal, India,Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, including the Nicobar Islands, through Myanmar, east to Indochina, southern China, Hong Kong and Hainan, as well as in the Malayan region of Indonesia and the Philippines. Some suggest that P. molurus and P. sebae have the potential to be problematic invasive species in South Florida.
The United States Department of Agriculture reports that only Python molurus bivittatus is an invasive species in the United States. More recent data suggests that these pythons would not withstand winter climates north of Florida, contradicting previous research suggesting a more significant geographic potential range.
Uses : Python skin is used to make clothing such as vests, belts, boots, shoes or fashion accessories such as handbags. It may also be used to cover the sound board of some string musical instruments, such as the banhu, sanxian or the sanshin.Snakes, like other reptiles, have a skin covered in scales. Snakes are entirely covered with scales or scutes of various shapes and sizes, known as snakeskin as a whole. Scales protect the body of the snake, aid it in locomotion, allow moisture to be retained within, alter the surface characteristics such as roughness to aid in camouflage, and in some cases even aid in prey capture (such as Acrochordus).
The simple or complex colouration patterns (which help in camouflage and anti-predator display) are a property of the underlying skin, but the folded nature of scaled skin allows bright skin to be concealed between scales then revealed in order to startle predators.
Scales have been modified over time to serve other functions such as ‘eyelash’ fringes, and protective covers for the eyes with the most distinctive modification being the rattle of the North American rattlesnakes.
Snakes periodically moult their scaly skins and acquire new ones. This permits replacement of old worn out skin, disposal of parasites and is thought to allow the snake to grow.
The arrangement of scales is used to identify snake species. Snakes have been part and parcel of culture and religion. Vivid scale patterns have been thought to have influenced early art. The use of snake-skin in manufacture of purses, apparel and other articles led to large-scale killing of snakes, giving rise to advocacy for use of artificial snake-skin. Snake scales are also to be found as motifs in fiction, video games and films.Snakeskin can either refer to the shed skin of a living snake after moulting or to a type of leather that is made from the hide of a dead snake.Shed skin : The moulting of the skin occurs regularly, when old skin is outgrown. In the case of snakes, it is called shedding. Snakes will rub against rough surfaces to shed their skin. A shed skin is much longer than the snake that shed it due to the fact that the skin covers the top and bottom of each scale. If the skin is shed intact, each scale is unwrapped on the top and bottom side of the scale which almost doubles the length of the shed skin. While a snake is in the process of shedding the skin over its eye can become milky. This impairs the vision of the snake and as a result most snakes will become more aggressive due to the snake feeling more vulnerable.Leather : Snakeskin is used to make clothing such as vests, belts, boots or shoes or fashion accessories such ashandbags and is used to cover the sound board of some string musical instruments, such as the banhu, sanxian or the sanshin. Snake leather is regarded as an exotic product alongside crocodile, lizard, ostrich, emu, camel, among others. With crocodile and lizard leathers, it belongs to the category of reptile leathers, with a scaly appearance.
Species: Reticulated Python (reticulatus)
Species: Short Tail Python (brongersmai)
Origin: Southeast Asia
Python skin is an amazingly pliable and diverse application. The skins are light in weight and come a very diverse array of style and colors.
And, like alligator and crocodile, its unique appearance is instantly recognizable which makes it a great leather to use for applications that will always maintain its luxury appeal despite what is trendy or currently in fashion.
Glazed vs. Matte The genuine python hides for sale will come in either glazed and matte finishes. Glazed styles have a distinct shine and feel very smooth to the touch. Python skin is great for trims, upholstery, clutches and inlays and come in a wide variety of wild colors. Matte python hides do not have the shine and are softer to the touch with scales that slightly protrude on their edges. Because of their softness and pliability, matte skins are the perfect material for wallets, garments, handbags and shoes that look great and feel elegant.
Color Styles : Natural Python – Our Natural python hides are available in both a Matte and Glazed texture. Python is a thin and pliable leather smooth scaling and brilliant colors. No two snakes have the same pattern – nothing in nature or man made matches the unique scales, patterns, and unique texture of genuine python leather.
Metallic Python – Our Metallic python hides have the same soft, pliable texture of python with a bright shiny metallic finish. This special finishing process extends the production possibilities further with an extensive line of gorgeous color options for the most luxurious fashion and style applications. All pythons have their own unique patterns for an exotic leather unmatched by synthetics in value, strength, and style.
Hand painted Python – Our Hand painted python hides offer limitless options on painted colored accents across the finished hide. Hand painting creates a wild exotic look while still retaining a lot of the natural snake patterns that make python skin so fascinating and recognizable. Python leather is strong and comfortable for garments and equally attractive in upholstery applications like furniture, car interiors, and trims.
NO two snake patterns are exactly the same and our hand painted mosaic python adds a new unique element in style and fashion. Python skin is a beautiful, strong leather with a distinctly diverse number of colors, tanning options and finishes for thousands of truly unique and one-of-a-kind applications. Python has been used for luxury handbags, hats, boots, furniture and wall coverings all over the world.
PYTHON @ FASHION
* LIZARD *
There are over 3000 lizard species distributed throughout the world, and because they are reptiles the majority are found in warmer climates. They range in sizes from 6cm up to 3m long! Lizards have scaly skin that is shed throughout the year, often in irregular patches. Some members of the lizard family are carnivorous (meat only), however there are others that are herbivorous (plants only) or omnivorous (plants and meat).
Each lizard skin project is different. How do you know what kind of skin to buy, how to size the skins, and how to get the appropriate cut for your project? That’s one of the hardest parts of the process, so we’d like to walk you through it.
The first decision you get to make is front cut or back cut. It’s a bit counterintuitive: back cut means the skin is cut down the back so you get the belly of the lizard skin. Front cut means the skin is cut down the belly so you get the back of the lizard skin. This is purely a design and merchandising decision since there is no price difference between the two cuts. It’s worth noting that the Nile lizard is only available in front cut and the teju is typically only available in back cut. The ring lizard is available in both.
Back Cut Unbleached Front Cut Unbleached
With or Without Natural Markings?
Now, do you want a bleached or unbleached lizard skin? The bleached skins cover up the natural markings of the lizard (e.g., the ring pattern on the ring lizard) so the skin is all one uniform color. Unbleached skins leave these markings intact. These are very different aesthetics. Since the bleaching is an additional process, these skins are typically slightly more expensive than the skins with the natural markings.
Front Cut Bleached Back Cut Unbleached
Size and Grades
The next thing you want to think about is your yields. Since lizard skin is expensive, you want to make sure you utilize as much of the skin as possible. What is the size of your panels you need to make your product? Are they large panels? How wide are they? How many panels are there? The more panels you have and the larger they are, the larger and better grade the lizard skin you will need. Handbags typically require large, grade one skins. Small leather goods, shoes and jewelry can normally use smaller, lower grade skins which are less expensive.
Different species (e.g., teju, ring, Nile) are different sizes but most species come in range of sizes, typically from 25 to 34 centimeters wide (and about the same length). The skins are typically offered in size ranges of 25/29 cm and 30+ cm. Both the aggregate and per centimeter price will typically be higher for larger skins.
The grading standards for lizard skin are fairly simple, and knowing these standards means that you can select the correct skin for your project. Grades in lizard skin are fairly basic: there’s grade 1 and grade 2. The grades are distinguished by blemishes on the skins:
- Grade 1 skins are free of defects in the center of the skin.
- Grade 2 skins possess defects in the center of the skin, such holes, scars and scratches.
If your patterns are small, you can often cut around the defects on the grade 2 skins for which you will pay less. If you have larger patterns, it’s better to stick to the better grade lizard skin.
Pricing the Skins
The price of lizard skin is primarily based on the size, the bleaching and the color/finish. Lizard skin is priced either per centimeter width or per skin. Larger skins have a higher per centimeter price.
Another factor in the price is the bleaching of the pattern. If you want the natural markings of the lizard bleached out so the lizard skin is all one uniform color, typically there is a small surcharge. In addition, there are surcharges for specialty finishes outside of the basic range of shiny and matte. Examples include iridescence, metallics, garments, nubucks and more.
Ring Lizard Skin (Varanus Salvator)
Origin : Indonesia
Source : Wild or Farm Average
Length : 1 to 3 feet
Est. Wild Population : Over 1 million
Nile Lizard Skin (Varanus Niloticus)
Origin : Sudan
Source : Wild
Average Length : 1 to 3 feet
Est. Wild Population : Unknown
“WATER MONITOR (Water Lizard)”
The water monitor (Varanus salvator) is a large lizard native to South Asia. Water monitors are one of the most common monitor lizards found throughout Asia, and range from Sri Lanka and India to Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, and various islands of Indonesia, living in areas close to water.
The water monitor is a large species of monitor lizards. Breeding maturity is attained for males when they are a relatively modest 40 cm (16 in) long and weigh 1 kg (2.2 lb) and for females at 50 cm (20 in). However, they grow much larger throughout life, with males being larger than females. Most adult specimens will not exceed 1.5–2 m (4.9–6.6 ft) in length. However, the species can attain a maximum size of 3 m (9.8 ft).The largest specimen on record was an animal measuring 321 cm from Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
A common mature weight of V. salvator can be 19.5 kg (43 lb). The maximum weight of the species is over 50 kg (110 lb). In exceptional cases, the species has been reported to attain 75 to 90 kg (170 to 200 lb), though most such reports are unverified and may be unreliable. They are the world’s second-heaviest lizard, after the Komodo dragon. Their bodies are muscular, with a long, powerful, laterally compressed tails.
The generic name Varanus is derived from the Arabic waral (ورل), which translates as “monitor” in English. The specific name is the Latin word for “Saviour” denoting a possible religious connotation. The water monitor is occasionally confused with the crocodile monitor (V. salvadorii) because of their similar scientific names.
In Thailand, the local word for a water monitor, hia (Thai: เหี้ย), is used as an insulting word for bad and evil things, including bad persons. The word is also thought to bring bad luck, so some people prefer to call the animals ตัวเงินตัวทอง, which means ‘silver and gold’ in Thai – to avoid the jinx.
The origin of this offensive meaning can be traced back to a time when more people lived in rural areas in close proximity to monitor lizards. Traditionally, Thai villagers lived in two-story houses; the top floor was for living, while the ground floor was designed to be a space for domestic animals such as pigs, chickens, and dogs.
Water monitors would enter the ground floor and eat or maim the domestic animals, also hence the other name ตัวกินไก่ (dtua gin gai – chicken eater). In Indonesian and Malay, the water monitor is called biawak air, to differentiate it from the biawak pasir (“sand lizard”), Leiolepis belliana.
Behavior and diet : Water monitors can be defensive, using their tails, claws, and jaws when fighting. They are excellent swimmers, using the raised fin on their tails to steer through water. They are carnivores, and have a wide range of foods. They are known to eat fish, frogs, rodents, birds, crabs, and snakes. They have also been known to eat turtles, as well as young crocodiles and crocodile eggs. Like the Komodo dragon, they will often eat carrion. Water monitors have been observed eating catfish in a fashion similar to a mammalian carnivore, tearing off chunks of meat with their sharp teeth while holding it with their fore legs and then separating different parts of the fish for sequential consumption.
Conservations : In Nepal it is a protected species in Chitwan National Park under the Wild Animals Protection Act of 2002. In Hong Kong, it is a protected species under Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Cap 170. In Malaysia, this species is one of the most common wild animals around, with numbers comparable to that of the population of macaques there. Although many fall prey to humans via road kill and animal cruelty, they still thrive in most states of Malaysia, especially in the shrubs of the east-coast states such as Pahang and Terengganu. In the east-coast states of Malaysia, this species is very common in roadkill. In Thailand, all monitor lizards are protected species.
Lizard skin has a fascinating smooth, stippled texture and shiny glazed finish that comes in an enormous variety of colors. High grade lizard skins are an incredibly sturdy reptilian leather that is versatile enough for many luxury applications. Lizard skins generally come natural tanning (where their natural markings are still present), a color tanning that still shows their natural markings, or a fully bleached and dyed skin with a consistent, solid color and no natural marketings. Because of their size and relatively low cost, they make great skins for use for secondary textures, trims and for adding luxury value to handbags, shoes and accessories.
Popular Applications: Handbags, shoes, boots, pool cues, cuffs, belts, upholstery, and inlays.
About Lizard Skin: Lizard hides have a smooth stippled texture and a shiny finish, strong and unique.
LIZARD @ FASHION
* KARUNG Snake *
Commonly known as the Elephant Trunk Snake, though that name can be used for all members of this family, this species is the best known member of the wart snake family. It is found throughout southeastern Asia, particularly in Indonesia, northern Australia, and New Guinea. It is the largest member of its family. Like other wart snakes, it is totally aquatic, and feeds on fish. It hunts fish mostly at night. It’s specialize raised scales help it hold on to slippery fish.
Elephant trunk snake(*source info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant_trunk_snake)Acrochordus javanicus, commonly known as the Elephant Trunk Snake, belongs to the Acrochordidae family which represents a group of primitive non-venemous aquatic snakes.Acrochordus javanicus possesses a wide and flat head, nostrilssituated on the top of the snout.
Those head’s particularities confer to Acrochordus javanicus a certain resemblance with boas.
However, its head is also wide as the body. Females are bigger than males and the maximal size of an individual is 240 cms. The dorsal side of the snake’s body is brown and its ventral side is pale yellow.
The skin is baggy and loose giving the impression that it is too big for the animal. The skin is covered with small rough adjacent scales. The skin is also used in the tannery industry and its leather is called Karung.
Those aquatics snakes are ovoviviparous, the incubation lasts 5 in 6 months and the female expels from 6 to 17 youngs.
Acrochordus javanicus is usually met in the central tropical Indo-Pacific waters. In Indonesia like in Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java and may occur in Bali; in the west coast of Malaysia and also in Thailand and Vietnam but not east of the Wallace Line.
Feeding : Acrochordus javanicus is an ambush predator that likes to capture fishes and amphibians. It usually catch its preys by folding firmly its body around it. Its loose, baggy skin and its sharp scales find their utility by limiting any risk of escape of the prey, in particular fishes which body is covered with a viscous protective mucus.
Behaviour : Acrochordus javanicus is active at night. It spends most of its life under water and rarely goes on land. It can stay under water up to 40 minutes.
KARUNG-Snake @ FASHION
* WATER Snake *
This thick-bodied snake is quite variable in color and pattern. Background color ranges from light gray to dark brown. It is almost always patterned with reddish-brown, brown or black cross-bands near the head and alternating back and side blotches farther down the body.
The pattern generally becomes less noticeable as the water snake grows larger, and often results in a uniformly dark snake. Body scales are strongly keeled and the belly is patterned with black or orange crescents.
* CITES *
Some of you probably unfamiliar with CITES and what it’s actually stand for, why some of leather products are actually need to include this CITES on their documentation. Well here we go…some more informations you need to know more, to complete your knowledge about EXOTICS Leather/Skins.
What is CITES?
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
Widespread information nowadays about the endangered status of many prominent species, such as the tiger and elephants, might make the need for such a convention seem obvious. But at the time when the ideas for CITES were first formed, in the 1960s, international discussion of the regulation of wildlife trade for conservation purposes was something relatively new. With hindsight, the need for CITES is clear. Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens.
The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction.
Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future.
CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of IUCN (The World Conservation Union).The text of the Convention was finally agreed at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D.C., the United States of America, on 3 March 1973, and on 1 July 1975 CITES entered in force. The original of the Convention was deposited with the Depositary Government in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic.
CITES is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws.
Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level. For many years CITES has been among the conservation agreements with the largest membership, with now 179 Parties.
(*source info : http://www.cites.org/)
*ADDITIONAL INFO* :
About our Products Legalities and Conservation
Our EXOTICS (Python, Lizard, Karung Snake, Water Snake) skins Products are legally imported through INDONESIA and are protected by EU Fish and Wildlife regulations and CITES Appendix. And come from legal farm or slaughtered house. All of our skins are inspected prior to leaving their origin country and prior to entering the European the final destination country.
We make sure that all the leather and skins produced as our products are not from endanger animal. Some products will be attach with CITES documentation, and can be ship all over the world to any country that allowed importing exotics skin product. But some of them are not, so it can only ship within EU country and some of country that allowed importing exotics skin product without CITES.